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الموضوع: Grammar Pamphlet مبسطة

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    افتراضي Grammar Pamphlet مبسطة

    السلام عليكم
    سأقوم بوضع قواعد اللغة الانجليزية بشكل يومي و سيكون هناك موضوع أخر للنقاش و ذلك حتى لا تشتبك الأمور




    مناقشات موضوع Grammar Pamphlet

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    افتراضي Parts of Speech Table

    part of speech
    Noun

    A noun is a naming word. It names a person, place, thing, idea, living creature, quality, or action.

    Examples: cowboy, theatre, box, thought, tree, kindness, arrival

    Verb

    A verb is a word which describes an action (doing something) or a state (being something).

    Examples: walk, talk, think, believe, live, like, want

    Adjective

    An adjective is a word that describes a noun. It tells you something about the noun.

    Examples: big, yellow, thin, amazing, beautiful, quick, important

    Adverb

    An adverb is a word which usually describes a verb. It tells you how something is done. It may also tell you when or where something happened.

    Examples: slowly, intelligently, well, yesterday, tomorrow, here, everywhere

    Pronoun

    A pronoun is used instead of a noun, to avoid repeating the noun.

    Examples: I, you, he, she, it, we, they

    Conjunction

    A conjunction joins two words, phrases or sentences together.

    Examples: but, so, and, because, or

    Preposition

    A preposition usually comes before a noun, pronoun or noun phrase. It joins the noun to some other part of the sentence.

    Examples: on, in, by, with, under, through, at

    Interjection

    An interjection is an unusual kind of word, because it often stands alone. Interjections are words which express emotion or surprise, and they are usually followed by exclamation marks.

    Examples: Ouch!, Hello!, Hurray!, Oh no!, Ha!

    Article

    An article is used to introduce a noun.

    Examples: the, a, an

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    Exclusive2

    Articles

    A, an , and the

    Nouns are, either countable (one horse , six horses , three girls) or uncountable (Sugar. ,coal , butter) . Countable nouns take I and An ( An goes with nouns beginning with vowel sounds ) to show that the noun is singular and. undefined. A. boy - is any undefined boy . An apple is any undefined apple.

    When we form the plural of countable nouns, we drop An or A (A boy) in the singular becomes( boys) in the plural, An apple becomes (apples)

    Examples:
    A cowboy lives in America.
    We get milk from a cow
    A soldier salutes an officer.


    The: countable nouns in the singular form take A or An before them to show that they are:
    a- singular
    b- undefined


    Plural countable nouns drop A or An also to show that they are undefined. When nouns, either countable or uncountable, singular or plural, are defined, we put The before them. (The man, The men, The sugar).

    Examples:
    The sugar Is sweet and the coffee is bitter.
    The sun was In the sky nearly all The time.

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    افتراضي Tenses

    1 Present Tense
    All verbs (except be) have one form for all persons except the third singular . The third person singular is usually formed by adding-s to the simple, or infinitive form.


    The uses of the present tense are:

    1. To express a condition that exists at the moment of speaking and may continue for a short time.
    - They are angry
    - She seems happy about the news.
    2. To express a general truth.
    - The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
    - The earth revolves around the sun.
    3 . To express the idea that an activity or capability existed before the
    moment of speaking, existed at the moment of speaking and may continue
    - She speaks fluent English.
    - My country produces a lot of materials.
    4. To express a customary or habitual action.
    - I usually take the bus to work.
    - I some times sleep late on Sunday
    5. To express future time.
    - He leaves for Europe next week.
    - The movie starts at eight


    Past Tens

    The past tense of a regular verb is formed by adding - ed or - d - to the base form . The form is the same for all persons, both singular and plural.



    An exception is the verb BE, which has two past forms.
    I was We were
    You were You were
    He was They were


    The uses of the past tense are:

    1. To express an activity that occurred at a definite time in the past.
    - It rained yesterday.
    - They came here a year ago.
    2. To express an activity that occurred at an unspecified time in the past.
    - He came to see us about his schedule.
    - He spoke to the captain about it.
    3. To express au activity that occurred in the past over a continuous period of time, but doesn’t continue to the present moment of speaking.
    - He studied French when he was in high school .



    Present Progressive Tense
    The present progressive is formed with the present tense forms of the auxiliary be plus the - ing form of the verb .This tense is also called present continuous.


    The uses of present progressive are:
    1. To express an activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking.•
    - David and his uncle are playing cards now.
    - You are reading this sentence now.
    2. To express an activity that occurred in the past, is going on. at the time of
    speaking, and will probably continue into the future.
    -Mary is studying music in New York.
    - Fred is working for an oil company.
    3. To express an activity that will take place in the future
    - We are going to that new movie after supper.
    - We are buying a new car as soon as the new models come out.
    4. To express a frequently repeated or habitual action that is usually by the simple present tense It is used in combination with the adverb always.
    - My son is always learning new things. .



    Past Progressive Tense:
    This tense is formed with the past tense forms of the auxiliary verb BE plus the –ing form of the verb. This tense is also called past continuous.


    The past Progressive is used to show that an activity was in progress in the past when another activity occurred. It is frequently used with the Past Tense.
    - I was eating dinner when Tom called
    - While they were playing tennis, it rained.



    Present Perfect Tense:
    This tense is formed with the forms of the auxiliary verbs HAVE or HAS plus the past participle of the verb



    Uses of the Present Perfect:
    1. It is used to show that an action started in the past and continued until the moment of speaking and finished.
    - We have finished reading this story.
    - She has just closed the store.
    2. This tense is used to express that the action started in the past continued to the moment of speaking, but we are not sure if it Is going to continue in the future Or not.. Or we don’t know at all,
    - I have taught this subject for 12 years.
    - He has driven his mother’s car.


    Past Perfect:

    This tense is formed with only one form of the auxiliary verb to have, which is the past form of have = had plus the verb in the past participle form for all persons.

    The past perfect tense is used to show that there were two actions in the past, one occurred before another action, or an action occurred before a specific time in the past.
    - I had got married before I graduated.
    - He had watched TV before he went to bed.
    - She had moved before the accident.


    The Future Tense:

    The future verb Phrase may be formed with WILL plus the simple form of the main verb.



    Subject ------Auxiliary(Will)------main verb
    I -----------------will -------------------- eat
    We--------------will----------------------be
    You ------------will----------------------drive
    You ------------will-----------------------read

    HE
    She----------------Will ---------------- go
    It

    They ---------------- will----------------study


    Uses of Future:
    The Future tense is used to express an action that will take place in the future. WILL is used for all persons. SHALL may be also used for first person singular or plural in formal speech and writing.

    - He will see you tomorrow at eight o’clock.
    - I will do my best to help you.
    - We will discuss that later.
    - Shall I pick you up at eight tonight.
    2 . Future time may be expressed by present tense.
    - He graduates tomorrow.
    - They leave Sunday morning.
    3. Future time may be expressed by present progressive tense.
    - They are opening the new store next week.
    - She is cooking dinner for us tonight.
    4. The. Auxiliary “going to” combines a form of Be with “going to” followed by a main verb This form is very common in spoken English.



    Subject + Be+ going to+ Main Verb\\\\\\\\\\Subject + Be+ going to+ Main Verb
    I ---------------- am going to -------walk \\\\\\\\\\ We --------are going to --------------walk
    You-----------are going to--------answer \\\\\\\\\\\\You-----are going to----------------answer

    HE
    She--------------is going to----------------finish
    It

    They--------------are going to--------------study

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    افتراضي

    Linking Verbs:
    A linking verb in a statement can be followed by a subject compliment(a noun or adjective) . This subject complement modifies the subject. The most common linking verbs are :

    a. BE.
    1. John is a student. (noun complement).
    2. The men are hungry. (adjective complement).
    3. Lackland is an air force base. ( noun complement)
    4. The captain was angry. (Adjective complement)

    b. Verbs of Perception:
    1. I feel uncomfortable with those people
    2. Your perfume smells wonderful.
    3. This ice cream tastes too sweet.
    4. That chair looks comfortable.
    5. The music sounds very loud.

    c. The verbs, ( get , turn , grow) when they mean become.
    1. The sky grew dark as the storm approached.
    2. It turns red when heated.

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    افتراضي

    Pronouns
    A pronoun is a word that can take the place of a noun The most common kinds of pronouns are:

    Subject pronouns
    Singular
    I
    You
    He she it
    Plural
    We
    You
    they

    Object pronouns
    Me
    You
    Her, him it
    Us
    You
    them

    Examples
    I. I read the book . it was good. (it refers to the noun book)
    2. Mary said,” I drink tea .“(The pronoun “I” refers to the speaker “Mary").
    3. This letter is from Mary. (It is from her)
    4. This letter Is for John. (It is for him)

    Demonstrative pronouns:
    (This, That, These, and Those).
    Examples
    1. This is my favorite food.
    2. These are my children.
    3. That is my notebook.
    4. Those are students
    Possessive Pronouns:
    Possessive Pronouns tell us more about the possessor than they do about the thing possessed.

    Possessive Pronouns
    Mine
    Yours
    Hers
    his
    Ours
    Yours
    theirs


    Possessive Adjectives
    My name
    Your name
    His, her, its name
    Our names
    Your names
    Their names

    Examples
    1. This is my book. Yours is over there.
    2 . This pen is mine. The other one is yours.
    3. John’s car was expensive, but ours cost even more.


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    افتراضي

    Questions:
    YES/ NO questions:

    A. A yes/no question is a question that may be answered by YES, or NO,
    B. If the verb is an auxiliary, the same Auxiliary is used in the question, there is no change in the form of the main verb.

    Examples:

    1. He is living there. Is he living there?
    2. Mary can swim. Can Mary swim?
    3. They will go to school. Will they go to school?

    C. if the sentence has more than one auxiliary , only the first auxiliary precedes the subject.

    Examples
    They will be studying. Will they be studying?

    D. If the verb is in the simple present. Use does with ( he , she , it) or do with ( I, you , we , they) in the question. If the verb is in the simple past, Use, did. The verb in the question is in its simple form.

    Examples:
    1. She lives in New York. Does she live in New York?
    2. They study English. Do they study English?
    3. They worked hard. Did they work hard?


    Question Word Questions

    - When: is used to ask about time.
    When did they arrive?
    When will you come?

    - Where: is used to ask about place.
    Where is she?
    Where can 1 find a pen?

    -Why: to asks about reason.
    Why did they leave early?
    Why aren’t you coming with LIS?

    -How: generally asks about manner.
    How did you come to school?
    How does he drive?

    How much: asks about quantity.
    How much money does it cost?
    How many: asks about number of count nouns How many people came?
    How : is also used with adjectives and adverbs
    How old, How cold, how soon, how fast, how long

    -Who : is used as the subject of a question * it refers to people.
    Who can answer the question?
    Who came to visit you?
    Who is followed by singular verb even if the answer is plural.
    Who is coming to dinner tonight?
    Who wants to come with me?

    - Whom: asks about the object
    Who(m) did you see?
    Who(m) are you visiting?
    * In spoken English , who is used instead of whom unless preceded by a preposition.

    - Whose : asks about possession.
    Whose book did you borrow?
    Whose key is this?

    - What : is used as the subject of a question . It refers to things.
    What made you angry?
    What went wrong?
    * What is also used as an object.
    What do you need?
    What did she buy?
    * What may also accompany a noun.
    What countries did you visit?
    What time did she come?

    - Which: is used instead of what when choosing from a group.
    Which pen do you want?
    Which book should I buy?
    * Which can also be accompanied by a noun.
    Which countries did be visit?
    Which class are you in?

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    افتراضي Expressions of quantity


    Expressions of quantity

    Many Much Some and Any
    1. Many : used with plural count nouns such as apples, chairs, students , .,.. etc
    used in affirmative and negative statements and questions as well :


    Examples
    a. She has many children.
    b. He doesn’t speak many languages.
    c. Does she have many friends?
    d. Doesn’t she have many friends?

    2. Much: used only with non c nouns such as: rice, milk, information----etc.
    used in affirmative and negative find negative statements and questions as well:


    Examples
    a. John has much money.
    b. John doesn’t have much money.
    c. Does she have much confidence in herself?
    d. Doesn’t she have much confidence in herself?

    3. Some: used with plural count nouns and non count nouns,
    students, salt .. etc
    used in affirmative statements and questions to give a positive attitude.


    Examples
    a. Jean has bought some sugar..
    b. Do you have some money?

    4. Any: used with singular and plural count nouns and non-count nouns; any
    book / any books ,any information. Used in both affirmative and negative questions and negative statements.


    Examples
    a. Does she have any problem(s)?
    b. Don’t they have any faith in God?
    c. She doesn’t have any problem(s) .


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    افتراضي


    The Indirect Object. (I.O)
    It is the person To whom or For-whom something. Is done :
    a. Sara gave the letter to her father
    IO (indirect object)
    b. Jean fixed the car for her husband
    IO
    [COLOR="rgb(72, 209, 204)"]Indirect object either comes before the direct object as in.[/COLOR]
    a. She sent her mother a package.
    IO D.O
    Or comes after the direct object and takes either to or for as in.
    b. She gave the book to Tom
    IO
    c. He got a drink for Mary
    IO
    * Notice the following sentences.
    a. She gave him a letter.
    b. She gave a letter to him.
    c. She gave it to him.
    d.* She gave him it.


    a, b, and c are all correct except “d” seems odd and unacceptable.

    Exercise: rewrite the following sentences as shown in the example:
    Example :
    - She handed the papers to her teacher.
    - She handed her teacher the papers.
    1. The doctor has given the results to his patients.
    2. The passenger paid three dollars to the driver.
    3. Would you lend your car to me?
    4. He has cut a piece of cake for her.

    Conjunctions:

    A conjunction is a word that joins other words or clauses etc. e.g.:
    and ,but or both ............... and ... etc

    1. And ( indicates addition) ( used when the statements are similar).
    She went downtown and bought some food.
    He sent money and clothes to his father.
    2. So (therefore, as a result)
    He was tired , so he went to bed.
    3. For(because) : shows cause or reason.
    The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for he was afraid of the dog.
    4. Yet/but: Both show contras.
    He didn’t study, but be passed.
    5. Or (shows a choice of two or more items.) (used to contrast equivalent Items.
    She has to study harder or she fails the course.
    6. Both ...... and( shows addition of two or more items. It’s somewhat more emphatic than and.
    Both my mother and sister are here (the two subjects connected by “both ..... and” take a plural verb.
    7. Not only .. but also ( shows mutual relations).
    Not only my mother but also my sister is here. (the subject that is closer to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural.

    8. Neither ------nor.( shows mutual relations and means not------ and not----)
    Neither my sister nor my parents are here.
    9. Either ------or----( offers a choice between two structurally equal items).
    Either John or Mary gets the prize.
    Notice that in Neither ....nor and either ---- or the, subject that is closer determines whether the verb Is singular or plural.
    10. However (shows contrast).
    I am getting along quite well, however, my roommate isn’t doing so well


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    افتراضي


    Prepositions

    A preposition is a word or, a group of words, that is often placed before a noun or a pronoun to indicate place, direction, source .... etc. such as at, on, by, in -------- etc.

    1. Prepositions Of time and date. (at, on, by. in)

    - At a time
    (at dawn, at six o’clock, at midnight, at an age ( at sixteen)

    - On a day/Date.
    (on Monday, on June 4, on Christmas Day).

    By a time / date period = at that time or before/ not later than that date.
    - On time / In time

    on time means at the time arranged, not before / not after.
    The bus leaves at 7:30.
    The bus leaves on time if it leaves at 7:30 (not before not after) ,in time not late.
    Passengers should be in time for their train.

    - From , since ,for.
    From is normally used with to or till! until.
    They work from eight to five:
    - Since from that time to the time of speaking. He has been working since 10:30.

    - For is used with a period of time. for 2 months / .2 years
    He has worked at that restaurant for 2 years. During is used with known periods of time, during summer / class.......

    - After and before.
    He has a shower before breakfast.
    He always brushes his teeth after meals.
    Prepositions of Place
    IN- is used with any place that has boundaries or is enclosed and rather big.
    in a country, town, village.

    At - is used with rather a small area! bus stop / airport / school/restaurant.

    * Notice the difference between At and In in the
    following 2 sentences.
    She is at school (either inside or in the grounds or just outside)
    She is in school (inside only).

    - On -( means covering or forming a part of a surface or in contact with).
    The ball is on the table.
    She sat on the table.

    - Above/Over ( higher than and sometimes either can be used.
    The sky is over / above our heads.
    - When there is contact or touching, over is used only.
    He spread his handkerchief over his face.

    -Under /Below ( lower than and some times either can
    There is nothing below / under 50’ cents.
    -When there is contact ,“under” is used only.
    She put her book under her pillow.

    Between/Among:
    Between is used with two people or things as in( she divided the money between her two sons).
    It can be used also whenever there is a definite number in mind as in
    Luxemburg lies between Germany, Belgium and France.
    Among is used with more than two people or things or whenever we have an indefinite number in mind.
    She divided the money among her four sons..

    - Into / On to . (Both indicate motion.
    - She poured tea into the cup.
    - The actor walked on to the stage


    Exercise:

    Fill the blanks with the correct preposition (over, on, at, above, during ,for, between , among , in , into, onto... etc.

    1. She left her keys ....... the car.
    2. He came to school -------------6 : 30 a.rn.
    3. She sat --------------------John and Jean
    4. They poured cement ........ ..... the hole.
    5. He has been waiting ....--------- three hours\
    6. They put a blanket ................ her dead body.


    ADJECTIVES.

    Definition
    * An adjective is a descriptive word which modifies a noun or a pronoun.
    Examples
    1. Selma is smart.
    2. The food tastes delicious
    3. I feel sleepy.
    Adjective position
    1. Attributive: adjectives are placed before the nouns they modify.
    Examples
    She bought a new car yesterday.
    Alfred writes correct sentences
    2. Predicate : adjectives follow linking verbs such as be-fee1 smell , look ,sound. They also come after these verbs - become, remain, get, appear and seem.
    Examples
    The lady smells nice.
    The boss is sad today.
    The weather will remain hot today.
    Forms of Adjectives:
    Most descriptive adjectives have three forms. These forms express degree in relation to the specific qualities of people or objects. These three degrees are :-
    1. positive: usually describing objects or things. The children are happy:
    2. comparative: describing two persons or things. AL is older than Ed
    3. Superlative: describing three or more persons or things. Tom is the tallest student in the class.



    Inflectional forms:

    1. The suffix inflections-er and –est are used for comparative and superlative of one syllable adjectives and for certain two syllable adjectives.
    Examples:

    [COLOR="rgb(65, 105, 225)"]Positive Comparative Superlative
    Great -Greater ---Greatest
    Happy -Happier ---Happiest
    Lively -Livelier ---Liveliest
    Tall -Taller ---tallest[/COLOR]

    2. More and Most are used with the Comparative and the superlative when an adjective has more than two syllables and for some two syllable adjectives.
    Examples

    Positive -Comparative ---Superlative
    careful -more careful ---most careful
    Expensive -More expensive ---Most expensive
    Interesting -More interesting ---Most interesting


    3. A few adjectives are compared with irregular forms
    Examples;

    Positive -Comparative ---Superlative
    Good -Better ---Best
    Bad -Worse ---Worst
    Far -Farther ---Farthest
    Far -Further ---Furthest
    Little -Less ---least


    Examples and exercises:

    1. Today is better than yesterday.
    2. Plane tickets are more expensive than train tickets.
    3. Tom is the richest student in the class.
    4. Selma is the smartest one in the party
    5. The weather today seems the best during this week.
    6. Exercise A is the most important of all.

    Exercise on comparisons
    Choose the correct answer:
    Exercises Oil comparisons

    Choose the correct answer
    1. This is the ------------- car.
    a. more expensive b. most expensive c. expensive
    2. Doctor Ned is the ...... of all
    a. good b. best c. better
    3. The food at Aldos restaurant tastes
    a. the more delicious b. the most delicious c. deliciously.
    4. Paperback books are ----------------than the hard cover ones.
    a. cheap b. more cheaper c. cheaper
    5. She has ............ money than her friend.
    a. more b. most c. much
    6. Speaking is ------------------ than listening.
    a. more difficult b. difficult c. difficultier
    7. The weather today seems ---------------than it was yesterday.
    a. bad b. worst . . c. worse
    8. She is ------------------.
    a. taller than me b. taller than I C. .. tallest than me
    Adverbs
    An adverb. is a word that modifies a verb , an adjective, or an other adverb.
    Examples
    1. He waited patiently . adv modifying a verb..
    2. He is completely satisfied with his boss . adv . modifying adj.
    3. Summer came very early this year. adv modifying adv
    Types of Adverbs:
    I. Adverbs of Manner. “usually formed by adding an –ly to an adjective
    Examples: quickly - slowly -easily - differently.
    2. Adverbs of frequency.
    Exarnp1es: always - never – sometimes-often - usually - ever
    3. Adverbs of location :-
    Exarnp1es utside - here - there - back down town- upstairs.
    4. Adverbs of time :-
    Examples : tomorrow -tonight - today early - soon - later.
    5. Interrogative adverbs:
    Examples where - when - why - how.
    6. Adverbs of degree :
    Examples: very – quite- almost - too . extremely - rather.
    Position:
    Adverbs come after action verbs -
    1. The storm broke suddenly.
    2. She dances beautifully.
    3. He speaks quickly.
    4. She drives carefully.
    * Some words are u both as adjectives and adverbs such as:
    Fast - Hard - Late - Early Well
    1. He is Fast. - adjective.
    2. He runs fast. -adverb.
    3. The job seems hard. adjective.
    4. He works hard - adverb.




    Examples of adjectives and adverbs:

    Adjectives adverbs
    Quick Quickly
    Slow Slowly
    Glad Gladly
    Happy Happily
    Correct Correctly
    Bad Badly
    Early Early
    Late Late
    Hard Hard
    Fast Fast
    Good well


    * Comparison of adverbs.
    Adverbs have three degrees:

    Positive Comparative superlative
    Quickly More quickly Most quickly
    Carefully More carefully Most carefully
    Fast Faster Fastest

    Irregular Forms:

    Positive Comparative superlative
    Badly Worse Worst
    Well Better Best
    Early Earlier Earliest
    Much More Most
    Far Farther Farthest
    Far Further furthest



    Evaluation Exercises on adjectives and adverbs:

    1. Underline the adverbs in the following paragraph:
    Lt. Jones is a good pilot. He flies well . He handles his plane efficiently and well. He is verb patient. When he instructs the students, he answers their questions cheerfully. He’s a rapid speaker but he Always explains slowly and carefully.
    2. Fill in the blanks with the adverbial forms of the adjective in parenthesis.
    1. She drives very--------- - (fast)
    2. He did the work------------- ( careful )
    3. She speaks English ------------(good)
    4. We arrived --------------(early)
    5. He obeyed ----------------(quick)
    3. Supply the correct form of the adjective or adverb.
    1. He is a ------------- ( fast ) driver
    2. He drives........... . (fast)
    3. This sentence is----------------.(correct)
    4. They all spoke ----------------( correct(
    5. He is always----------------( glad ) to go
    6. He went---------------.( glad )
    4. Choose the correct form.
    1. His English is very (well , good)
    2. He speaks (careful , carefully)
    3. He doesn’t drive, as (careful , carefully) as I.
    4. The pilot landed his plane ( quick, quickly) and (careful, carefully).
    5. Don’t speak ( careless, carelessly) because it sounds (bad, badly(


    Adverbs of Frequency:

    * They are used to indicate the number of times an action repeated
    * The most commonly used adverbs of frequency are always (100%) – usually(75%-95%) - often (50-75%)- sometimes (1-25%)- ever (0%-100%) – never (0%)

    Position:
    1. Before action verbs
    She always eats in the cafeteria.
    We usually sleep at night.
    We often speak F
    2. After be-verbs
    She is always late.
    The answers re usually right
    We are often careless.
    3. Between the Auxiliary and Main Ver:
    Martha has always been my friend
    You can usually find the colonel here.
    Jeff has sometimes been wrong
    Meaning and Percentage:
    Always All of the time. 100 %
    Usually Most of the time. 75% - 99%
    Often - Frequently. 50%% - 75%
    Sometimes – Occasionally now and then, once in a while I % - 25%
    Ever At any time 1%- 100%
    Never Not at any time 0%


    Ever- Never:

    Ever is used in negative statements and questions:
    I don’t ever ride the bus
    She doesn’t ever study in the morning
    My friend doesn’t ever read the lesson.
    Is he ever at home in the morning?
    Does the student ever study in his room?
    Have you ever been abroad?
    Never is a negative form of adverb.
    Never =Negative statement
    I have never been to U.K.
    They never take a cab
    They never work hard.



    Evaluation Exercise:
    Place the adverb in the correct position:

    1. (Often) I eat at 12:30.
    2. (always) John goes downtown in a cab.
    3. (usually)Are the students in an apartment house?
    4. (often)Is the cab late?
    5. (always) Do those people work hi the afternoon?
    6. (usually) Does Mr. Hilton teach English?
    7. (ever) Does your friend call the wrong number?
    8. (always) I don’t understand the lesson.
    9. (ever) Mr. and Mrs. Burns don’t ride the bus.
    10. (never)1 have orange juice.
    11 .(usually) She goes to work at 8 o'clock.
    12 . (often) We have Lunch at the cafeteria’.
    13. (ever) Do you take the bus?
    14 . (sometimes) They go to bed by 10 o’clock.
    15. (always) We have toast with Our coffee.
    16 . (ever) Do you study in the evening?
    17. (usually) Paul doesn’t work at night.
    18. (often) We don’t in a restaurant..
    19. (ever) They aren’t in class on Sunday.
    20 . (always) Are the waitresses busy?


    Modal Auxiliaries

    Modals are auxiliary or helping verbs that are different from the other types of auxiliaries. They give a special meaning to the main verb. They express mental concepts such as possibility, ability, permission, obligation, necessity, and inference. The modals are followed by the simple form of the main verb.
    Usage and Meaning of Modals:
    A. Can-Could= be able to
    Uses
    Examples:
    Martha can play the piano
    He could speak French when he was a boy.
    She can climb the mountain
    1. Informal Permission.
    Examples:
    You can leave after dinner
    Anyone can go to the concert.
    Can I go with you?
    3. Possibility.
    Examples:
    I can pick you up tomorrow at 4:00
    I could get married next year.
    I will be able to attend my brother's wedding
    4. Polite Request:
    Examples:
    Could I get the price list , Please?
    Can you lend me ten dollars?
    Can I leave early today?
    b. May-might
    Uses
    1. Permission
    Examples:
    May I visit you sometime?
    May I leave early?
    You might watch TV.
    2. Request.
    Examples:
    May I have some more coffee?
    May I smoke here?
    May I leave early?
    3. Possibility
    Examples:
    We may take our vacation in July.
    We might go to the mall tomorrow
    It might rain tonight.
    4.Offers.
    Examples:
    May I drive you home?
    May I help you?
    May I prepare it for you?
    C. Should=ought to=had better
    Uses:
    1. Obligation
    Examples:
    You should pay your Bills on time.
    We should write letters to our friends
    You should come on time
    2. Probability
    Examples:
    The boss should be back anytime now.
    I should get a call from him soon.
    My friend should be at home now.
    3. Advisability.
    Examples:
    You should get more sleep
    We should exercise more
    I should study for the test.
    D. Must=have to
    Uses
    1. Necessity(strong obligation)
    Examples:
    Everyone must finish the test by 9:30.
    We must not be late
    We must buy a larger car
    2. Inference(conclusion).
    Examples:
    He is wet, It must be raining.
    The statistics must be right.
    She didn’t come. She must be sick.
    **NOTE: Must and have to are very similar in meaning. With have to, the obligation is usually external while must is used when the feeling of obligation comes directly from the speaker.
    E. Will=be going to.
    Uses:
    1. Future
    examples:
    We will see you after lunch
    We will go to the party tonight
    I will visit you tomorrow
    2. Request.
    Examples:
    Will you help me with this problem?
    Will you please pass the sugar?
    Will you open the door?
    3. Promise
    Examples:
    I'll see you at ten.
    I will help you tomorrow.
    We will have a p[arty next Monday.
    F. Would
    Uses
    1. Polite request.
    Examples:
    Would you call back please?
    Would you help me open these windows?
    Would you pay the Bill by Monday?
    2. Would+Infintive(contrary –to-fact condition)
    examples:
    I would go with you if I had time
    He would enlist in the army if he were older
    I would buy a car if I had money
    3. Would + rather= prefer.
    Examples:
    I would rather stay home.
    I would rather have coffee
    I would rather study Math.
    4. Pat habitual activity.
    Examples:
    When she was young, she would dream of being a mother.
    When I was young, I would play football.
    When she was living in UK, she would practice sports.
    Exercises on Modals:
    Exercise -1-
    Find the error in each of the following sentences, then correct it.
    1. She can refuses the offer.
    2. He must to be at home right now.
    3. He has to gave more homework.
    4. She didn’t able to climb the mountain.
    5. I ought meet someone tonight.
    Exercise -2-
    Write the meaning of the underlined Modal in each sentence.
    1. It may rain tonight
    2. Would you please wait over there?
    3. We have to leave pretty soon
    4. Could I get the price list please?
    5. He would rather make the decision later.
    6. I will visit her tonight.
    7. If I had money, I would go shopping.
    8. You must obey my orders.



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